CAUSES OF MALE INFERTILITY
- Hormone disturbance.
- Overheating of the testicles caused by exercise, hot water, tight clothing, excessive sitting (truck drivers) and other conditions and situations.
- Mumps after puberty.
- Anatomical abnormalities of the genitals, such as undescended testicles.
- Genital injury.
- Varicose veins in the testicles (varicocele).
- Intercourse problems such as premature withdrawal or poor timing with their partner’s menstrual cycle.
- Genetic abnormalities.
- Cystic fibrosis.
- Cancer medications and radiation therapy.
- Sexually transmitted diseases.
- Use of some medications, such as some for high blood pressure, some antidepressants, and male hormones.
- Prostate surgery.
- Excessive alcohol consumption.
- Spinal cord injury.
- Urinary tract infection.
- Illicit drug use (e.g. using cocaine, smoking marijuana).
- Environmental factors may also affect male fertility. Sperm counts are going down in industrialized countries due to unknown environmental factors.
TYPES OF MALE INFERTILITY
- Azoospermia: no sperm in the ejaculate.
- Oligospermia: low concentrations of sperm in the ejaculate.
- Asthenospermia: sperm are present but can’t swim normally.
- Teratospermia: high proportion of abnormally-shaped sperm.
- Retrograde ejaculation: the tube through which sperm normally travel is blocked and sperm may end up in the bladder.
TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR MEN
- Healthy living.
- Vasectomy reversal.
- Surgical sperm retrieval.
- Surgical Procedure-Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA) and Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE).
- Surgical Procedure- Micro Surgical Testicular Sperm Extraction (MicroTESE)
- Varicocele repair